ChaCha20BLAKE3 3.0.0

.NET Standard 2.1
Install-Package ChaCha20BLAKE3 -Version 3.0.0
dotnet add package ChaCha20BLAKE3 --version 3.0.0
<PackageReference Include="ChaCha20BLAKE3" Version="3.0.0" />
For projects that support PackageReference, copy this XML node into the project file to reference the package.
paket add ChaCha20BLAKE3 --version 3.0.0
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#r "nuget: ChaCha20BLAKE3, 3.0.0"
#r directive can be used in F# Interactive, C# scripting and .NET Interactive. Copy this into the interactive tool or source code of the script to reference the package.
// Install ChaCha20BLAKE3 as a Cake Addin
#addin nuget:?package=ChaCha20BLAKE3&version=3.0.0

// Install ChaCha20BLAKE3 as a Cake Tool
#tool nuget:?package=ChaCha20BLAKE3&version=3.0.0
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License: MIT CodeQL

ChaCha20-BLAKE3

Committing ChaCha20-BLAKE3, XChaCha20-BLAKE3, and XChaCha20-BLAKE3-SIV AEAD implementations using libsodium and BLAKE3.

Features

This library does several things for you:

  • Derives a 256-bit encryption key and 256-bit MAC key based on the key and nonce.
  • Supports additional data in the calculation of the authentication tag, unlike most Encrypt-then-MAC implementations.
  • Appends the authentication tag to the ciphertext.
  • Compares the authentication tags in constant time during decryption and only returns plaintext if they match.
  • Offers access to an SIV implementation that does not take a nonce.

Justification

The popular AEADs in use today, such as (X)ChaCha20-Poly1305, AES-GCM, AES-GCM-SIV, XSalsa20-Poly1305, AES-OCB, and so on, are not key or message committing. This means it is possible to decrypt a ciphertext using multiple keys without an authentication error, which can lead to partitioning oracle attacks and deanonymisation in certain online scenarios. Furthermore, if an attacker knows the key, then they can find other messages that have the same tag.

This library was created because there are currently no standardised committing AEAD schemes, adding the commitment property to a non-committing AEAD requires using a MAC, and Encrypt-then-MAC offers improved security guarantees.

Finally, (X)ChaCha20-BLAKE3 is a good combination for an Encrypt-then-MAC scheme because:

  1. ChaCha20 has a higher security margin than AES, performs well on older devices, and runs in constant time, unlike AES.
  2. BLAKE3 is fast and evolved from BLAKE, which received a significant amount of cryptanalysis, even more than Keccak (the SHA3 finalist), as part of the SHA3 competition.

Installation

NuGet

You can find the NuGet package here. The easiest way to install this is via the NuGet Package Manager in Visual Studio, as explained here. JetBrains Rider also has a package manager, and instructions can be found here.

Manual

  1. Install the Sodium.Core and Blake3.NET NuGet packages for your project in Visual Studio.
  2. Download the latest release.
  3. Move the downloaded .dll file into your project folder.
  4. Click on the Project tab and Add Project Reference... in Visual Studio.
  5. Go to Browse, click the Browse button, and select the downloaded .dll file.
  6. Add using ChaCha20Blake3; to the top of each code file that will use the library.

Notes

The libsodium library requires the Visual C++ Redistributable for Visual Studio 2015-2019 to work on Windows. If you want your program to be portable, then you must keep the relevant (x86 or x64) vcruntime140.dll file in the same folder as your executable on Windows.

Usage

ChaCha20-BLAKE3

⚠️WARNING: Never reuse a nonce with the same key.

const string filePath = "C:\\Users\\samuel-lucas6\\Pictures\\test.jpg";
const string version = "application v1.0.0";

// The message does not have to be a file
byte[] message = File.ReadAllBytes(filePath);

// The nonce should be a counter that gets incremented for each message encrypted using the same key
byte[] nonce = new byte[ChaCha20BLAKE3.NonceSize];

// The key can be randomly generated using a CSPRNG or derived using a KDF (e.g. Argon2, HKDF, etc)
byte[] key = SodiumCore.GetRandomBytes(ChaCha20BLAKE3.KeySize);

// The additional data can be null but is ideal for file headers, version numbers, timestamps, etc
byte[] additionalData = Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(version);

// Encrypt the message
byte[] ciphertext = ChaCha20BLAKE3.Encrypt(message, nonce, key, additionalData);

// Decrypt the ciphertext
byte[] plaintext = ChaCha20BLAKE3.Decrypt(ciphertext, nonce, key, additionalData);

XChaCha20-BLAKE3

⚠️WARNING: Never reuse a nonce with the same key.

const string filePath = "C:\\Users\\samuel-lucas6\\Pictures\\test.jpg";
const string version = "application v1.0.0";

// The message does not have to be a file
byte[] message = File.ReadAllBytes(filePath);

// The nonce can be a counter or randomly generated using a CSPRNG
// Increment or randomly generate the nonce for each message encrypted using the same key
byte[] nonce = SodiumCore.GetRandomBytes(XChaCha20BLAKE3.NonceSize);

// The key can be randomly generated using a CSPRNG or derived using a KDF (e.g. Argon2, HKDF, etc)
byte[] key = SodiumCore.GetRandomBytes(XChaCha20BLAKE3.KeySize);

// The additional data can be null but is ideal for file headers, version numbers, timestamps, etc
byte[] additionalData = Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(version);

// Encrypt the message
byte[] ciphertext = XChaCha20BLAKE3.Encrypt(message, nonce, key, additionalData);

// Decrypt the ciphertext
byte[] plaintext = XChaCha20BLAKE3.Decrypt(ciphertext, nonce, key, additionalData);

XChaCha20-BLAKE3-SIV

⚠️WARNING: Never reuse a key. As a precaution, you can use at least 16 bytes of unique, random data as part of the additional data to act as a nonce.

const string filePath = "C:\\Users\\samuel-lucas6\\Pictures\\test.jpg";

// The message does not have to be a file
byte[] message = File.ReadAllBytes(filePath);

// The key can be randomly generated using a CSPRNG or derived using a KDF (e.g. Argon2, HKDF, etc)
byte[] key = SodiumCore.GetRandomBytes(XChaCha20BLAKE3SIV.KeySize);

// The additional data can be null, used as a nonce, and/or used for file headers, version numbers, timestamps, etc
byte[] additionalData = SodiumCore.GetRandomBytes(XChaCha20BLAKE3SIV.KeySize / 2);

// Encrypt the message
byte[] ciphertext = XChaCha20BLAKE3SIV.Encrypt(message, key, additionalData);

// Decrypt the ciphertext
byte[] plaintext = XChaCha20BLAKE3SIV.Decrypt(ciphertext, key, additionalData);

Benchmarks

The following benchmarks were done using BenchmarkDotNet in a .NET 6 console application with 16 bytes of additional data.

In sum, ChaCha20-BLAKE3 performs similarly to ChaCha20-Poly1305 and is even faster with large inputs. Whilst it is slower with small messages, I would argue that the additional security makes up for any performance loss.

512 bytes
Method Mean Error StdDev
ChaCha20-BLAKE3.Encrypt 1.504 us 0.0027 us 0.0024 us
ChaCha20-BLAKE3.Decrypt 1.530 us 0.0067 us 0.0060 us
XChaCha20-BLAKE3.Encrypt 1.601 us 0.0012 us 0.0010 us
XChaCha20-BLAKE3.Decrypt 1.610 us 0.0068 us 0.0060 us
XChaCha20-BLAKE3-SIV.Encrypt 1.593 us 0.0086 us 0.0080 us
XChaCha20-BLAKE3-SIV.Decrypt 1.610 us 0.0009 us 0.0008 us
ChaCha20-Poly1305.Encrypt 785.9 ns 4.59 ns 4.29 ns
ChaCha20-Poly1305.Decrypt 793.6 ns 1.25 ns 0.98 ns
XChaCha20-Poly1305.Encrypt 865.1 ns 1.24 ns 0.97 ns
XChaCha20-Poly1305.Decrypt 888.1 ns 4.23 ns 3.75 ns
16 KiB
Method Mean Error StdDev
ChaCha20-BLAKE3.Encrypt 25.49 us 0.039 us 0.032 us
ChaCha20-BLAKE3.Decrypt 24.91 us 0.026 us 0.024 us
XChaCha20-BLAKE3.Encrypt 25.75 us 0.042 us 0.039 us
XChaCha20-BLAKE3.Decrypt 24.99 us 0.051 us 0.048 us
XChaCha20-BLAKE3-SIV.Encrypt 23.76 us 0.030 us 0.028 us
XChaCha20-BLAKE3-SIV.Decrypt 23.88 us 0.024 us 0.022 us
ChaCha20-Poly1305.Encrypt 16.62 us 0.049 us 0.041 us
ChaCha20-Poly1305.Decrypt 16.66 us 0.096 us 0.090 us
XChaCha20-Poly1305.Encrypt 16.76 us 0.069 us 0.058 us
XChaCha20-Poly1305.Decrypt 16.70 us 0.020 us 0.017 us
32 KiB
Method Mean Error StdDev
ChaCha20-BLAKE3.Encrypt 40.38 us 0.060 us 0.056 us
ChaCha20-BLAKE3.Decrypt 39.58 us 0.035 us 0.033 us
XChaCha20-BLAKE3.Encrypt 40.53 us 0.038 us 0.032 us
XChaCha20-BLAKE3.Decrypt 39.50 us 0.048 us 0.045 us
XChaCha20-BLAKE3-SIV.Encrypt 36.02 us 0.673 us 0.661 us
XChaCha20-BLAKE3-SIV.Decrypt 36.91 us 0.034 us 0.032 us
ChaCha20-Poly1305.Encrypt 32.87 us 0.051 us 0.043 us
ChaCha20-Poly1305.Decrypt 32.92 us 0.187 us 0.175 us
XChaCha20-Poly1305.Encrypt 32.85 us 0.046 us 0.039 us
XChaCha20-Poly1305.Decrypt 33.03 us 0.093 us 0.087 us
64 KiB
Method Mean Error StdDev
ChaCha20-BLAKE3.Encrypt 63.93 us 0.098 us 0.091 us
ChaCha20-BLAKE3.Decrypt 62.47 us 0.142 us 0.133 us
XChaCha20-BLAKE3.Encrypt 64.31 us 0.141 us 0.131 us
XChaCha20-BLAKE3.Decrypt 62.67 us 0.084 us 0.078 us
XChaCha20-BLAKE3-SIV.Encrypt 59.08 us 0.053 us 0.049 us
XChaCha20-BLAKE3-SIV.Decrypt 60.09 us 0.052 us 0.049 us
ChaCha20-Poly1305.Encrypt 65.33 us 0.182 us 0.142 us
ChaCha20-Poly1305.Decrypt 65.75 us 0.529 us 0.494 us
XChaCha20-Poly1305.Encrypt 65.43 us 0.236 us 0.197 us
XChaCha20-Poly1305.Decrypt 65.79 us 0.584 us 0.546 us
128 KiB
Method Mean Error StdDev
ChaCha20-BLAKE3.Encrypt 208.2 us 2.65 us 2.48 us
ChaCha20-BLAKE3.Decrypt 196.0 us 2.56 us 2.39 us
XChaCha20-BLAKE3.Encrypt 208.1 us 2.94 us 2.60 us
XChaCha20-BLAKE3.Decrypt 197.1 us 2.65 us 2.35 us
XChaCha20-BLAKE3-SIV.Encrypt 206.1 us 2.82 us 2.64 us
XChaCha20-BLAKE3-SIV.Decrypt 196.4 us 3.14 us 2.93 us
ChaCha20-Poly1305.Encrypt 182.0 us 1.15 us 1.08 us
ChaCha20-Poly1305.Decrypt 180.9 us 1.49 us 1.39 us
XChaCha20-Poly1305.Encrypt 180.9 us 1.13 us 1.00 us
XChaCha20-Poly1305.Decrypt 181.1 us 1.45 us 1.29 us
32 MiB
Method Mean Error StdDev
ChaCha20-BLAKE3.Encrypt 44.08 ms 0.814 ms 0.937 ms
ChaCha20-BLAKE3.Decrypt 42.88 ms 0.736 ms 0.653 ms
XChaCha20-BLAKE3.Encrypt 41.90 ms 0.812 ms 0.967 ms
XChaCha20-BLAKE3.Decrypt 42.31 ms 0.653 ms 0.579 ms
XChaCha20-BLAKE3-SIV.Encrypt 42.35 ms 0.821 ms 1.008 ms
XChaCha20-BLAKE3-SIV.Decrypt 42.39 ms 0.694 ms 0.649 ms
ChaCha20-Poly1305.Encrypt 49.07 ms 0.289 ms 0.271 ms
ChaCha20-Poly1305.Decrypt 48.68 ms 0.171 ms 0.143 ms
XChaCha20-Poly1305.Encrypt 49.02 ms 0.150 ms 0.140 ms
XChaCha20-Poly1305.Decrypt 48.77 ms 0.195 ms 0.173 ms
Product Versions
.NET net5.0 net5.0-windows net6.0 net6.0-android net6.0-ios net6.0-maccatalyst net6.0-macos net6.0-tvos net6.0-windows
.NET Core netcoreapp3.0 netcoreapp3.1
.NET Standard netstandard2.1
MonoAndroid monoandroid
MonoMac monomac
MonoTouch monotouch
Tizen tizen60
Xamarin.iOS xamarinios
Xamarin.Mac xamarinmac
Xamarin.TVOS xamarintvos
Xamarin.WatchOS xamarinwatchos
Compatible target framework(s)
Additional computed target framework(s)
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NuGet packages

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Version Downloads Last updated
3.0.0 89 1/17/2022